The Scientific Guide to Hemp Cannabinoids
We share a chart below showing the health conditions treated and improved by various natural constituents found in Cannabis sativa, whether it's marijuana or the more subtle hemp varieties. Biological information on cannabinoids shared here comes from university research articles, SC Labs, and Leaf Science.
The science on hemp cannabis shows that cannabinoids don't just heal sick people; they can also boost the vitality of healthy people.
The importance of quality ingredient oils is underscored by the diverse biological functions of hemp cannabis' many cannabinoids, which are especially effective when they work together in broad-spectrum and full-spectrum hemp extracts.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCa)
Depending on the strain, THCa is found in raw buds and trim at levels of less than 0.3% to over 20% by weight. THCa is decarboxylated to Δ9-THC (delta-9 THC) at high temperatures.
THC generally has psychoactive effects and acts as a partial agonist of the body's innate CB1 and CB2 endocannabinoid receptors, working synergistically with CBD to produce the "entourage effect" even at low concentrations. However, its biomolecular functions go well beyond its ability to get you high.
THC, CBD, CBN, and other cannabinoids target cellular pathways that allow cancers to grow and spread.
Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA)
CBDa is a prominent constituent in raw hemp cannabis and is decarboxylated (heated) to generate CBD after harvest or during processing.
CBD has excellent medical potential when combined with other cannabinoids at the right ratio--which varies by illness and symptom. CBD acts as an antagonist of the body's CB1 and CB2 endocannabinoid receptors.
CBN is a mildly psychoactive cannabinoid that is produced from the degradation of THC over time in aged cannabis. With greater affinity for CB2 receptors than CB1, it has a moderate sedative effect. CBN has anticonvulsant properties that reduce the incidence and severity of epileptic seizures, but it is less potent than THC and CBD.
Non-psychoactive CBG helps regulate GABA and serotonin neurotransmitter levels in the brain. GABA subdues anxiety and puts the body in a restful state, while serotonin regulates mood, sleep, and appetite. Serotonin is primarily found in the nervous system of the digestive tract. CBG isn't found at high concentrations in fully grown cannabis plants because it is a precursor to the botanical formation of THC, CBD, and CBC.
Non-psychoactive CBC binds to the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), among others, leading to a reduction in the processes that degrade the body's natural endocannabinoids, including anandamide and 2-AG.
CBC fights inflammation without activating cannabinoid receptors, and it can promote neuron healing and growth.
THCV has only a minor chemical difference from THC: it has a 3-carbon group substituted for THC's 5-carbon group. Yet its effects are different from those of THC. THCV acts as an antagonist at the CB1 receptor and a partial agonist at the CB2 receptor.
CBDV has a sidechain that is only two carbons longer than the one found on CBD. Despite this being the only difference, its effects are distinct. CBDV acts on TRPV1 receptors and modulates gene expression.